Editing guidelines


Texts are to be written using standard type, only introducing italics where necessary (title of a work of art, title of a book, title of a chapter, title of a poem, title of an exhibition, title of a film, word in a foreign language…). The punctuation after the italics is in standard type. Do not use bold type, CAPITAL LETTERS, small capitals or tabs.


If the images to accompany essays and information sheets are provided by the author, it is necessary for these to be in JPG or TIFF format, of quality and dimensions that are sufficient for printing; these characteristics will be evaluated by the prepress department, together with the graphic and DTP artist. For images provided in electronic or digital format, considering the dimensions in which they will be reproduced, a minimum resolution of 300 dpi is necessary, with a minimum width of 20 cm.

If tables are provided, these must be in Word, while graphs must be presented in a separate file in Word, Excel or PDF, with a resolution of 300 dpi.

Characterisation of the text

Cited passages

The passages by other authors shown in the text must be in standard type, between quotation marks «».

Three dots in square brackets […] are used to indicate words omitted in the quotation.

All the additions that the author makes to the cited text are to be in square brackets []. In the case of a quotation within a quotation, a different type of quotation marks must be used: «… “…”…».

In the note that closes the first quotation present in each contribution, the author must explain the criteria followed in the transcribing of the documents concerned, indicating, for example, whether the capitals and lower case letters, punctuation, accents and obsolete graphic forms present in the original text have been respected or whether the decision has been made to modernise them.

Foreign words

If words from a language other than Italian are included in the discourse, and are not therefore text quotations, these must be in italics. If the non-Italian terms have entered common use, these are not to be written in italics and are to be left invariable in the plural. If, on the other hand, they are quotations of text, they must be in standard type, between quotation marks.

Punctuation, accents and the use of capital letters

Punctuation marks must follow brackets, quotation marks and note numbers.

We refer your attention to the correct use of acute and grave accents.

Except in cases in which proper names are used, the use of capital letters in the Italian language is conventional and none of the various systems commonly practised can be considered entirely satisfactory. Broadly speaking, the following criteria will be followed:

a. The names of positions and qualifications are put in the lower case; capital letters as a form of respect are not used.

b. Substantivised adjectives that indicate the inhabitants of a territory or state are put in the lower case.

c. Substantivised adjectives that indicate a geographical area are put in capital letters.

d. Capital letters are used for terms that indicate ages or historical periods.

e. Years are always in the lower case.

f. The words Stato and Chiesa only are put in capital letters when they indicate the body institutionally.

g. A common name that indicates territorial areas generically goes in the lower case, whereas it goes in capital letters if it indicates a specific institution.

h. In the case of names of offices, bodies and authorities, each author is left free to use capitals and lower case letters as he or she sees fit; obviously, each choice must be used consistently  within each essay.

i. The words santo, santi, santa, sante, san, santissimo and santissima are not put in capital letters. Capitals are only used in the following cases: if the case concerns a geographical name, the names of churches or if it concerns a name used as antonomasia, not followed not by a proper name: la basilica del Santo (to indicate, for example, la basilica di Sant’Antonio di Padova).

l. The names of buildings, villas, chapels, streets, squares are put in the lower case.

m. The names of museums, galleries, foundations… follow the capitals or lower case letters of the original name. The simple words for museum, gallery, foundation… in the discourse will, however, be in the lower case.

n. To indicate synods, councils… capitals will be used if one in particular is indicated and lower case if the words synod, council… are used in the discourse.

o. In geographical names, the common name will be lower case, the proper name with an initial capital letter.

p. The compass points have capitals if they indicate a geographical area, whereas they have lower case if they indicate the direction: a sud in Firenze, si diresse verso nord.

Use of numbers

Numbers are always given in figures when dates, statistical data, quantities preceded by the respective measurements are indicated. For the discursive use of numbers in the text, generally speaking the name in letters is preferred: ventitré, trentatré… will be written with an acute accent. Double dates are written in full and separated by a hyphen. Units of measurement are to be abbreviated when technical data are involved and written in full inside the discourse. In the case of abbreviations, these are never to be followed by a full stop.

Use of the euphonic “d”

The euphonic “d” is to be used when the preposition “a” and the conjunction “e” are followed by a word that begins with the same vowel. The exception is “ad esempio”, which retains the “d”. The use of “od” is always to be avoided.

Use of dashes and hyphens

The dash is only to be used for interpolated clauses and in lists; the hyphen divides words or numbers without the use of spaces.

The use of the hyphen is to be avoided in the case of compound words.

Reference to names

The proper name followed by surname must always be indicated in full in the text, never solely with the initial followed by a full stop; if the author does not know the proper name, then he or she is to only indicate the surname. If reference is made in the discourse to people only indicating them with their surname, always proceed by avoiding placing the article before the surname.

Use of quotation marks

Quotation marks « »: these are used for quotations and direct speech.

Inverted commas “”: these are used for incorrect, emphatic or ironic expressions and for a quotation within a quotation between quotation marks.

Single quotation marks ‘’: these are used within quotation marks.


The following spellings are preferred:

a. Con il, con i, con gli, con la, con le (not col, coi, colla, colle).

b. Medievale (not Medioevale).

c. Sia… sia… (not sia… che).

d. For quotations of passages from the Gospels, see the following example: (Mt. 18,16-17).

e. Inside round brackets, use square brackets: (cfr., a tale proposito, C. Bertelli, Lombardia medievale, cit. [vedi nota 9], p. 48).

f. The use of abbreviations should preferably be avoided.

g. Crocifissione not crocefissione; resurrezione not risurrezione; san Gerolamo not Girolamo.

Captions for images and the technical part of data sheets

When the caption is the technical part of a catalogue data sheet, the number is placed at the beginning and followed by a full stop and a new line. All the parts are separated by a new line, with a lower case letter at the beginning of the line. The caption is not closed with a full stop.

The following examples concerning captions in essays must be considered in a similar way for the captions of data sheets, as indicated for the first two examples. Particular cases different from those mentioned here are to be discussed and resolved with the editor-in-chief on each occasion.

Paintings and sculptural works

Name and surname of the painter(s) or sculptor(s) in full (standard type); title of the work (in italics). Where a detail of a work is concerned, write “detail”, between commas, in standard type and the title immediately afterwards. After the date there follows the location of the work, giving the information according to an order going from the general to the particular: the city where the work is located (in Italian), the building or museum (in the original language, possibly followed by the indication of the section or collection) or the church (possibly followed by the indication of the specific location: chapel, cloister…) where the work is conserved. The technique of execution and the measurements, if indicated, are to follow the date of the work and precede the location.

1. Defendente Ferrari, Sant’Eusebio, particolare, XVI secolo, Vercelli, Museo Borgogna

2. Francesco Hayez, Il bacio, particolare, 1859, olio su tela, 110 x 88 cm, Milano, Pinacoteca di Brera

3. Vincenzo Danti, Madonna con il Bambino, 1568, Firenze, basilica di Santa Croce

Architectural works

City where the building is located, name of the building (in standard type), indication of the part of the building represented in the image reproduced.


Author in standard type, subject of the miniature in italics, followed by the author (in standard type) and the title of the manuscript to which the miniature belongs (in italics), preceded by the word da (in standard type). There follow the city (in Italian), the museum (in the original language) where the manuscript is located (and possibly more specific indications of the section or collection), the signature mark of the text, the indication of the sheet number preceded by c. (carta) and followed by r/v (recto/verso) in italics.

1. Ignoto miniatore del XV secolo, Galeazzo Maria Sforza in trono riceve da Gerolamo Mangiaria una copia della sua opera (da Gerolamo Mangiaria, De impedimentis matrimonii, Parigi, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, ms. Lat. 4586, c. 1r)


Name and surname of the author in full, followed by the title of the drawing (in italics), date, technique, measurements in millimetres, museum where it is conserved and inventory number.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, San Gerolamo adora il Crocifisso, 1665, inchiostro bruno acquerellato su carta, 392 x 294 mm, Parigi, Musée du Louvre, inv. 9575


Name and surname of the author in full, followed by the title of the engraving (in italics), date, printing technique, museum where it is conserved and inventory number.

Luigi Sabatelli, La peste di Firenze, 1801, acquaforte, Firenze, Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi, inv. 1234

Photographic credits

For each photograph to be published that is delivered to the editorial office, the author is to indicate exactly the archive, museum, government department, etc. from where the photograph has been acquired, or the name of the photographer who has taken it, or the bibliographical details of the book from which it is taken.

General rules for drafting bibliographical notes

The bibliographical item is cited in full in the first note and abbreviated in the subsequent ones with reference to the first note in which it is cited in full, as in the following example:

1 G. Berra, Il giovane Caravaggio in Lombardia. Ricerche documentarie sui Merisi, gli Aratori e i marchesi di Caravaggio, Firenze 2005, pp. 33-40.

3 Berra, Il giovane Caravaggio, cit. (vedi nota 1), pp. 50-57.

In citing a work, it is important to keep to what is shown in the frontispiece of the text. The publishing house must not be indicated.

The number of the page(s) referred to must be preceded by “p.” and “pp.” and must be indicated in Arabic numbers, separated by a hyphen (-); the number after the hyphen must always be indicated in full. You may also use “s.” (seguente), “ss.” (seguenti) or “passim”: p. 25; pp. 25-27; pp. 345-349; pp. 23 ss.; pp. 87 passim.


a. Initial of the name followed by a full stop, then followed by the surname.

b. In the case of a double name, the two initials must not be separated by a space.

c. If there are two or three authors, separate with a comma.

Curator or translator

The name of the curator or the translator is placed after the title of the work, with the initial of the name followed by a full stop and the surname, preceded by the phrase “a cura di” or “traduzione di” in standard type.


When citing the preface or the introduction of a work, the initial of the name followed by a full stop and the surname are shown, followed by the words “Prefazione/Introduzione a.”


This is separated from the author’s name by a comma and is always given in italics. The punctuation is shown as in the frontispiece; if this is lacking, separate the component parts with a full stop.

Typographical notes

These are shown in the language in which they appear in the frontispiece, in the following order: place of publication and date, not separated by a comma.


The publisher is not indicated for modern publications; the name of the publisher is to be cited before the place of publication solely for old printed works for which this reference proves significant.

Place of publication

The publisher’s registered office must be indicated, not the printing location; when this is lacking, use the initials “s.l.” (senza luogo).


If the publication has no date but it is possible for this to be deduced, it is shown between square brackets; when it is uncertain, use the initials “s.d.” (senza data).

Date and place

If both the date and place of publication are lacking, use the initials “s.n.t.” (senza note tipografiche).


If an edition following the first is cited, the number of the edition is to be shown, adding the year.

Works in a number of volumes

In the case of works in a number of volumes, published in different places and years, the typographical notes must be those relating to the volume that is cited. The volume is cited with a Roman numeral shown after the title (not preceded by the abbreviation vol.), followed by any particular title of the volume itself and by the specific typographical notes.

G. Candeloro, Storia dell’Italia moderna, IV, Lo sviluppo del capitalismo e del movimento operaio, Milano 1986.

Anastatic reprint

After showing the details of the original volume, the typographical notes of the anastatic reprint are indicated in round brackets, preceded by the words “rist. anast.” and by a comma.

S. Pellico, Il Sacro Monte di Varallo. Carme, Varallo 1836 (rist. anast. Borgosesia 1979).

Series of bibliographical citations

Bibliographical references in sequence are separated by a semicolon and given in chronological order.

How to indicate a text cited in the previous note

Rather than repeat the author’s surname, use Id. and Ead.

Ibidem, on the other hand, is used when the same text is cited in two consecutive notes with the same page numbers, and “ivi” with different page numbers.

1 V. Castronovo, La revolución industrial, Barcelona 1975.

2 Id., Il Piemonte, Torino 1977.

3 Ivi, pp. 38-42.

4 G. Bataille, Obras escogidas, Barcelona 1974.

5 Ivi, p. 12.

6 Ibidem.

Miscellaneous volumes

Pio II e le arti. La riscoperta dell’antico da Federighi a Michelangelo, a cura di A. Angelini, Siena 2005.

Essays in miscellaneous volumes

G. Gentilini, Virtù ed eroi di un’impresa dimenticata: il monumento di Vitaliano e Giovanni Borromeo, in I monumenti Borromeo. Scultura lombarda del Rinascimento, a cura di M. Natale, Torino 1997, pp. 47-82.

Exhibition catalogues

Matteo Civitali e il suo tempo. Pittori, scultori e orafi a Lucca nel tardo Quattrocento, catalogo della mostra (Lucca, Museo Nazionale di Villa Guinigi, 3 aprile-11 luglio 2004), a cura di M.T. Filieri, Cinisello Balsamo 2004.

Essays in exhibition catalogues

F. Caglioti, Su Matteo Civitali scultore, in Matteo Civitali e il suo tempo […] or, if the catalogue is being cited for the second time, F. Caglioti, Su Matteo Civitali scultore, in Matteo Civitali e il suo tempo, cit. (vedi nota 1), pp. 12-35.

Data sheets in exhibition catalogues

F. Caglioti, in Matteo Civitali e il suo tempo […], p. 334, n. 2.2; or, if the catalogue is being cited for the second time, F. Caglioti, in Matteo Civitali e il suo tempo, cit. (vedi nota 1), p. 334, n. 2.2.

Conference papers

Benvenuto Cellini. Kunst und Kunsttheorie im 16. Jahrhundert, Atti del convegno (Frankfurt am Main, 2-5 novembre 2000), a cura di A. Nova, A. Schreurs, Köln-Weimar-Wien 2003.

Articles in periodicals

A. Angelini, Il busto marmoreo di Alessandro VII scolpito da Gian Lorenzo Bernini, “Prospettiva”, 89-90, 1998, pp. 184-192.

Articles in daily newspapers

M. Morasso, La nuova pittura al Salon d’Automne. Un consiglio agli ordinatori della Esposizione di Venezia, “Il Marzocco”, 23 ottobre 1904, p. 3.

Headwords in dictionaries or encyclopaedias

G. De Caro, ad vocem Borghese, Marcantonio, in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, XII, Roma 1970, p. 602.

Auction catalogues

Sotheby’s, London, 21 maggio 2007, Important European Sculpture, lotto n. 10.

Printed works from the 15th-18th centuries

a. Author

If the author’s name appears in Latin, show it in the nominative case (if it is deemed appropriate to retain the Latin form), or in the vernacular form if this is the one most commonly used. However, extrapolate it from the title that appears in the frontispiece and in which it is normally shown in the genitive or in another case.

In the frontispiece: Dictionarii seu repertorii moralis Petri Berchorii

Citation: P. Berchorius, Dictionarii seu repertorii moralis Petri Berchorii

If the author’s name does not appear in the frontispiece, but is obtained from another part of the book, show this without square brackets; if it is obtained from sources external to the publication, use square brackets.

b. Title

The title, both in Latin and in the vernacular form, may be abbreviated, provided it fully makes sense. Omissions are indicated with three dots.

c. Place of publication

Show as it appears in the frontispiece: in Latin (Romae; Venetiis; Francofurti…) or in the vernacular form (in Fiorenza; in Vinegia…).

d. Publisher or typographer

For these publications, the name of the printer/publisher is also indicated, showing it after the place of publication in the form in which it appears in the frontispiece.

e. Date of publication

The year of publication or printing must always be shown in Arabic numbers (excluding the day and the month if these are given, and possibly also expressions such as “anno domini”, “anno salutis”, “stampato nell’anno”).

If the place of publication, publisher, typographer and date are obtained from the colophon rather than from the frontispiece, these are to be shown without square brackets. In the event of the absence of one or all of these elements, use the abbreviations s.l., s.e., s.d., s.n.t., as for modern works.

Archive citations

Institute that conserves the collection

This is indicated with an abbreviation separately in the table of abbreviations that each author must enclose with their contribution. In the event that the name of the institute does not contain the location where it is to be found, this must be indicated.

ASMi = Archivio di Stato di Milano

BNB = Milano, Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense


The name of the collection, the series and any sub-partitions, separated by commas, must be given in full, in italics and with the beginning of each partition in capital letters.

ASMi, Atti di governo, Uffici e tribunali regi, Parte antica, …

Archive unit

The indications of the envelope (or series, bundle, pack, cluster or box), file and possibly sub-file and insert, volume or register are to be shown in standard type separated by a comma; the number is shown in standard type. For abbreviations with which to indicate the various units, refer to the table of abbreviations. When it is necessary to show the object or title of the unit, use quotation marks «».

When it is necessary to indicate the paper inside a register, use “c” followed by a full stop, followed by the number; where necessary, the number of the paper is followed, without spaces and on the same line, by r to indicate the recto (front) and by v to indicate the verso (rear), in italics without a full stop. In the event that the sheet needs to be indicated, use “f” followed by a full stop; for the page, use “p” followed by a full stop. In the plural these are abbreviated as cc. and ff.

Details of the document

To indicate the individual document, the following details are to be provided.

a. Type of document in standard type (report, minutes, telegram, note, letter, etc.) or any title in italics.

b. Any author, sender and recipient of a document.

c. Any topical date, followed by day, month and year.

Ibidem and ivi The use of ibidem is only permitted if the citation of the same document must be repeated immediately. If two documents contained in the same archive unit are cited, the indication of the institute, collection, series and other possible sub-partition and unit are to be replaced with ivi in the citation of the second.